Assessment of Carbon Emissions for the Construction of Buildings Using Life Cycle Analysis: Case Study of Lagos State


  • Adekunle A Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI)
  • Osagie Ibhadode Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI)
  • A.P Ibhadode The Delft Institute of Water Education, Nigeria
  • Shawon Msughter Caesar Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI)



Carbon emission, Residential building, Life cycle analysis


Environmental impacts associated with construction, use, and end-of-life of buildings have become a great concern to all and sundry especially as it concerns the health of people. This study aims to evaluate and ascertain the level of carbon emissions for the construction of a case residential building using life cycle analysis. In an attempt to determine carbon emissions at different stages, the following areas were considered: materials consumed during formwork construction, materials for structure, transportation of materials from factory to site, energy consumed by tenants, carbon emission removals, and disposal of debris. Emission factors were obtained from local sources to have cognitive and representative results. The results therefore established that the total carbon emission throughout the life cycle of the case building is 1,212 tons of CO2e  which was found to pose a minor threat to the environment according to standard. It was also deduced that carbon emission due to the energy consumed by tenants emerged the most significant with 47% followed by materials for structure (36%), materials consumed during formwork construction (8%), materials based on demolition (7%) while transportation of materials from factory to site and debris to disposal site emerged as the least significant with just 1% each. Overall, findings suggest that a sufficient reduction of carbon emissions in building construction starts from the extraction, processing and manufacturing of building materials. Hence, lawmakers and professionals in the built industry should enforce implementable policies that will encourage designs of low carbon and sustainable residential edifice.


Adekunle A., Nwaigwe D.N, Nya Essang and Samuel P.O. “Application of Road Transportation System to Generate Electricity via Road Humps in Lagos State, Nigeria” International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering (IJASRE), Volume 5, Issue 4 April (2019), 49-56

Osagie Ibhadode, A. A. Adekunle, S. O. Banjo, O. D. Atakpu (2019): Thermophysical,

Electrical and Mechanical Characterizations of Normal and Special Concretes: A Holistic Empirical Investigation for Prequalification and Quality-Control of Concrete. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1378 (2019) 042100. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1378/4/042100

Osagie Ibhadode, Taofiq Bello, A. E. Asuquo, F. W. Idris, F. A. Okougha, I. I. Umanah, M. C. Ugonna, D. N. Nwaigwe (2017): Comparative-study of Compressive-strengths and Densities of Concrete Produced with different Brands of Ordinary Portland Cement in Nigeria, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 8(9), 1260-1275.(

Jibrin Sule, Sule Emmanuel, Ismaila Joseph, Osagie Ibhadode, Buba Y. Alfred, Farida Idris Waziri, Emeson Sunny (2017): Use of Waste Plastics in Cement-based Composite for Lightweight Concrete Production, International Journal of Research in engineering Technology,2(5),44-54.

Ogunro, A. S.; Apeh, F. I.; Nwannenna, O. C. and Ibhadode, O. (2018): Recycling of Waste Glass for Clay used in Ceramic Tile Production, American Journal of Engineering Research, 7(8), 272-278. (

Azeta J., Ishola F., Akinpelu T., Dirisu J. O., Okokpujie I. P., Ibhadode O. (2019): Performance Evaluation of Developed Mathematical Models of Hot Air Balloon for Drone Application. Procedia Manufacturing, Elsevier, Science Direct, 35(2019), 1073-1078. DOI: 10.1016/j.promfg.2019.06.059

Osagie Ibhadode, I. T. Tenebe, P. C. Emenike, O. S. Adesina, A. F. Okougha & F. O.

Aitanke (2018): Assessment of noise-levels of generator-sets in seven cities of South-Southern Nigeria. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 10(2), 125135. DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2017.1400711

Ibhadode Osagie, Oyedepo O. S., Ogunro A. S., Azeta Joseph, Solomon O. Banjo, Umanah I. I., Apeh E. S., Ayoola A. R. (2018): An Experimental-assessment of Human Exposure-levels to Aircraft Noise-hazards in the Neighbouring-environments of four Nigerian Airports. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 413 (2018) 012080, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/413/1/012080

Ibhadode, O., Ajayi, O. O., Abioye, A. A., Ismaila, J., Adekunle, A. A. (2019): An evaluation of classroom-illumination: a critical requirement for effective designing and construction of naturally-illuminated schools in Nigeria. Progress in Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, 13(4), 342-372. DOI: 10.1504/PIE.2019.102849

ESEIGBE Akhere Pauline, IBHADODE Osagie, AYOOLA Abayomi Razzaq, SOSANOLU Omoniyi Moses (2018): An Experimental Determination of Drinking Water Quality in Abeokuta Metropolis, South-western Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, 4(12), 241-256. DOI: 10.31695/IJASRE.2018.33035

Ogbiye, A. S., Tenebe, I. T., Emenike, P. C., Diwa, I. D., Omole, D. O., Omeje, M., Ngene, U. B., Oyekweredike, O. K., Ibhadode, O. (2019): Preliminary Assessment of the Current Pollution Status of river Atuwara, Nigeria, Within an Industrial Site: A Bivariate Approach. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, River Basin Management 2019, 234(1), 209-219.

Osagie Ibhadode, A. Adekunle, Y. K. Abimiku, N. M. Umeobika, (2019): Noise-level

Characterization of Portable Electric-power Generators in North-Central Nigeria: A Brand-by-Brand Comparative-study. International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology, 5(4), 44-58. DOI: 10.31695/IJERAT.2019.3427

Ibhadode Osagie; Ibhadode Peter; Okougha, A. F.; Umanah, I. I.; Aitanke, F. O.; Fiyebo, S. A. B. (2016). Hazards Assessment Analyses of Fossil-fuel Generators: Holistic-study of Human Experiences and Perceptions in South-Southern Nigeria, Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, 9(2), 153-242. (

O. S. Adesina, D. A. Agunbiade, O. Ibhadode, (2019): Adaptive Models for Tail of Distributions. International Journal of Statistics and Economics, 20(2), 123-134.

Osagie Ibhadode, A. A. Adekunle, C. O. Nwafor, I. I. Umanah (2019): Interference Mitigation Among Indoor Phone Subscribers in LTE Based Heterogeneous Networks Using Fast Response Frequency Reuse Technique. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1378 (2019) 032019. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1378/3/032019

S. O. Banjo, Bukola O. Bolaji, Oluseyi O. Ajayi, Babalola P. Olufemi, Ibhadode Osagie, Anthony O. Onokwai (2019): Performance enhancement using appropriate mass charge of R600a in a developed domestic refrigerator. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 331 (2019) 012025, DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/331/1/012025

Osagie Ibhadode, A. A. Adekunle, J. Azeta, Y. K. Abimiku (2019): An Investigation of the Influence of Femtocells Network on a Small Size Indoor Environment Using ITU-R and WINNER II Path Loss Models. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1378 (2019) 032020. DOI: 10.1088/17426596/1378/3/032020

S. O. Banjo, B. O. Bolaji, Ibhadode Osagie, O. S. I. Fayomi, O. B. Fakehinde, P. S. Olayiwola, S. O. Oyedepo, N. E. Udoye (2019): Experimental analysis of the performance characteristic of an eco-friendly HC600a as a retrofitting refrigerant in a thermal system. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1378 (2019) 042033. DOI: 1088/1742-6596/1378/4/042033

Nwafor Christiana O, Abimiku Yohanna, Ibhadode Osagie, Annune Eric J. (2019): Experimental Evaluation of Radiological Hazards in Ceramic Tiles Used in the Jos-South, Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, 5(12), 1-8. DOI: 10.31695/IJASRE.2019.33571

Osagie Ibhadode, F. A. Okougha, C. O. Nwafor, Nya Essang (2017): An Experimental-study on Ventilation of Public Schools in Akure, Oshogbo and Ado-ekiti Cities in South-western Nigeria, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 14(5), 34-43. DOI:


Peter Ibhadode, A. P. Ibhadode, Osagie Ibhadode, O. M. Sosanolu (2020): Post-Project

Environmental Impact Evaluation of Ota Industrial Housing Estate on the Localized

Environment and Environs in Ogun State, Nigeria, International Journal of Engineering

Research and Advanced Technology, 6(1), 9-28. DOI: 10.31695/IJERAT.2020.3597

Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. 2011; 3(3):160-166.

Adekunle A., Asaolu G.O., Adiji K., Kasheem Umar A (2019) Improvement of Channel Capacity in a Multiple Input Multiple Output LTE Radio System for GSM-Users Using Ideal Power Distribution Technique. (IJASRE, E-ISSN: 2454-8006, Vol.5 Issue 9, September 2019, DOI: )

Adekunle A.; Adewale A.K.; Olaifa O.A; Ukoh S.N.B. (2019).Statistical Study on Types, Causes, Effects and Remedies of Corrupt Practices in Construction Industries in Nigeria (IJASRE, E-ISSN: 2454-8006, Vol.5 Issue 4, April 2019, DOI: )

Adekunle A., Abimiku Y.K., Umeobika N.M., Ameh E.E (2018). Radio wave detection using cost 231-Hata model for wireless network planning; a case study of senate building environs of Unilag, Nigeria.(IJASRE, E-ISSN: 2454-8006, Vol.4 Issue 12, December 2018, DOI:

Adekunle A., Umanah I.I., Adewale A.K., Egege C.C (2018). Analytical study of casualties in the construction industry in Nigeria with a view to provide remedial measures: case study of Lagos state. (IJERAT,E-ISSN: 2454-6135, Vol.4 Issue 8, August 2018, DOI:

Adekunle A., Umanah I.I., Ibe K.E., Imonikosaye M. Rukewe (2018). Statistical Analysis of Fire Outbreaks in Homes and Public Buildings in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State (IJERAT, E-ISSN:2454-6135, Vol.4 Issue 8, August 2018, DOI:

Adekunle A., Asaolu G.O., Adiji K., Bamiduro H.A (2016). Impacts of electrical hazards on Nigerian construction industries with a view to provide safety measures(JSDS,ISSN 2201-4268, Vol.9, Number 2,2016,267-289

A. Adekunle, A. Asuquo, N. Essang, I.I.Umanah, K.E. Ibe, Ayo Bamidele Alo (2016). Statistical analysis of electrical fire outbreaks in buildings: case study of Lagos state, Nigeria(JSDS,ISSN2201-4268,Vol.9,Number1,2016,76-92

Adekunle A., Ibe K.E., Kpanaki M.E., Umanah I.I., Nwafor C.O., Essang N (2015). Evaluating the effects of radiation from cell towers and high tension power lines on inhabitants of buildings in Ota, Ogun state (JSDS,ISSN 2201-7372, Vol.3, Number 1, 2015, 1-21

Adekunle A., Abimiku Y.K., Nwafor C.O., Nwaigwe D.N., Agbonkhese O (2015). High Voltage Transformers and Electromagnetic Emissions. (IISTE, ISSN 2225-0638, Vol.46,2015,16-25

A.Adekunle, E.S.Ekandem, K.E. Ibe, G.N.Ananso, E.B.Mondigha (2014). Analysis of thermal and electrical properties of Laterite, clay and sand samples and their effects on inhabited buildings in Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria. (JSDS,ISSN 2201-4268, Vol.6,Number 2,2014,391-412

Ekandem E.S., Daudu P.I., Lamidi R.B., Ayegba M.O., Adekunle Adebayo (2014). Spontaneous Settlements: Roles and Challenges to Urban Planning. Journal of Sustainable Development. (JSDS,ISSN 2201-4268, Vol.6, Number 2, 2014, 361-390

Agbonkhese O., Agbonkhese E.G., Aka E.O., Joe-Abaya J., Ocholi M., Adekunle A. (2014). Flood menace in Nigeria: impacts, remedial and management strategies. (IISTE, ISSN 2225-0514,Vol.6,Number4,2014,32-40

Adekunle A. and Gbenga-Ilori A. (2020), Minimizing Interference in Ultra-Dense Femtocell Networks Using Graph-Based Frequency Reuse Technique, FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology (FUOYEJET)


How to Cite

Adekunle A, Osagie Ibhadode, A.P Ibhadode, & Shawon Msughter Caesar. (2020). Assessment of Carbon Emissions for the Construction of Buildings Using Life Cycle Analysis: Case Study of Lagos State. International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology (ijerat) (E-ISSN 2454-6135) DOI: 10.31695/IJERAT, 6(8), 1–11.