Characterization and Optimization Study of Transesterification of Non-Edible Oil Using Response Surface Methodology


  • Wisdom Chukwuemeke Ulakpa Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Nigeria



Biodiesel, Catalyst, Neemseed oil, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Transesterification


In this study,  calcium oxide  (CaO)  derived from waste bone was utilized as a catalyst for the transesterification of  Neem seed oil  (NSO) with methanol. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and Thermogravometric/differential thermal analysis. The process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with central composite design (CCD) was carried out to ascertain the best performing states and to improve the methyl ester output. The response changes being improved were: catalyst, concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and agitation speed. The transesterification process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with the central composite design approach. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was observed that the most significant criterion on methyl ester produced from methanolysis of neem oil was methanol to oil molar ratio and agitation speed. The predicted=91.2% output was established in good agreement with the analytical value of 92.0%, with R-squared value: 0.9966, Adj.R-squared value: 0.9904 and predicted R-squared value: 0.9846. The best methyl ester yield of 92.0% was achieved at 4h reaction time, with 4wt. % of catalyst weight and methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1.


Ashish, K. Naveen K. Hasan, M.M., Rajeev, C. Arshad, N S. and Zahid, A. Khan. (2010). Production of Biodiesel from Thumba Oil: Optimization of Process Parameters. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment 1 (4), 352-358.

Demirbas, A. (2003). Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non- Catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey, Energy Conversion, and Management, 44, 2093-2109.

Demirbas, A. (2005). Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 31 (5-6), 466-487.

Demirbas, A. (2009). Progress and Recent Trends in Biodiesel Fuels. Energy Conversion and Management, 50, 14-34.

Figueiredo, M, A. Fernando, G. Martins, J. Freitas, F. Judas, Figueiredo, H. (2010). Effect of the calcination temperature on the composition and microstructure of hydroxyapatite derived from human and animal bone. Ceramics International Journal,36 (8),2383–2393, doi:

Helwani, Z. Othman, M.R. Aziz, N. Kim, J. Fernando, WJN. (2009). Solid Heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides with methanol: A review. Applied catalysis A-General 363.1-10. htt://

Lee, H.V. Yunus, R. Juan, J. C. Tauq-Yap, Y. H. (2011). Process optimization design for jatropha-based biodiesel production using Response Surface Methodology, Fuel Process Technology, 92, 2420-2428

Moradi, G.R. Dehghani, S. Ghanei R. (2012). Measurement of physical properties during transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel from the prediction of reaction progress. Energy Conversion and Management 61, 67-70. 2012.03.015.

Nagi, J. Ahmed, S. K. and Nagi, F. (2008). Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy for the Energy Demands of the Future. International Conference on Construction and Building Technology, 79-94.

Onukwuli, O. D, L. N. Emembolu, C. N. Ude, S. O. Aliozo, and M. C. Menkiti, (2016). Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cottonseed oil and its characterization.Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 26(1), 103–110.

Razali, N. Mootabadi, H. Salamatinia, B., Lee, K. T. Abdullah, A.Z. (2010). Optimization of process parameters for alkaline – catalyzed transesterification reaction of palm oil using Response Surface Methodology. Sains Malaysiana, 39(5), 805 – 809

Shandilya, P. Jain, P.K. Jain, N.K. (2011). Optimization of Conversion of High Free Fatty Acid Jatropha curcas Oil to Biodiesel Using Response Surface Methodology.International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(1), 531-535.

Suwanthai, W. V. Punsuvon, and Vaithanomsat, P. (2016). Optimization of biodiesel production from a calcium methoxide catalyst using a statistical model. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 33(1), 90–98.

Vicente, G. Coteron, A. Martinez, M., Aracil, J. (1998). Application of the Factorial Design of Experiments and response surface methodology to Optimize biodiesel production. Industrial Crops Products. 8, 29–35.

Yoosuk, B. Udomsap, P. Puttasawat, B. Krasae, P. (2010). Improving transesterification activity of CaO with hydration technique. Bioresour Technology.101, 3784–3786.

Younis, M. N. M.S. Saeed, S. Khan, M.U.Furqan, R.U. Khan, and Saleem, M. (2009).Production and Characterization of Biodiesel, from Waste and vegetable oil.Journal of Quality and Technology Management,5 (1),111-121.




How to Cite

Characterization and Optimization Study of Transesterification of Non-Edible Oil Using Response Surface Methodology. (2021). International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology (ijerat) (E-ISSN 2454-6135) , 7(3), 11-22.