A Modelling of Multi-Objective Sustainability Palm Kernel Supply Chain Based on Hybrid NSGA-II and Reinforcement Learning


  • Defi Norita Department of Agro industrial Engineering, IPB University, Indonesia
  • Yandra Arkeman Department of Agro industrial Engineering, IPB University, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Romli Department of Agro industrial Engineering, IPB University, Indonesia
  • Heti Mulyati Department of Management, IPB University, Indonesia




Palm kernel shell supply chain, NSGA II, Reinforcement Learning, Sustainability, Uncertainty.


Palm kernel shell supply chain is a partial network of integrated palm oil supply chain network having potential business to be developed in order to reduce waste in the network. Sustainability and uncertainty are important challenges in the supply chain network design to make the business network sustain. This research work aims to design a Strategy of Sustainable Multi-Echelon Supply Chain based on Hybrid NSGA-II and Reinforcement Learning Under Uncertainty in Palm Kernel Shell Material Flow. We design a mathematical model with triple objectives in palm kernel shell supply chain network to meet sustainability criteria with economy, social, and environmental impact from the supply chain. To solve tripe objective function Hybrid NSGA II is designed to reach Pareto optimal solution combined with Reinforcement Learning to reach beneficial solution during optimization processes. The hybrid methodology found 28 alternatives strategy and outperform other method in multi-objective model solution processes. The calculation shows environmental reduction (in kg carbon reduction) to 252 kg and economic impact in complex palm kernel shell supply chain network rather than previous research. The solution also suggests the network configuration fo palm kernel shells material flow.


Carter, C. R. dan Easton, P. L. (2011) ‘Sustainable supply chain management: evolution and future directions’, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 41,No. 1, pp. 46–62.

Chopra S dan Meindl P. 2007. Supply Chain Management Strategy, Planning, Operations. Pearson International Edition. New Jerssey

Deb, K. and Jain, H., 2013. An evolutionary many-objective optimization algorithm using reference-point-based nondominated sorting approach, part I: solving problems with box constraints. IEEE transactions on evolutionary computation, 18(4), pp.577-601.

Fan, G., Yang, F., Guo, P., Xue, C., Farkoush, S.G. and Majd, J.K., 2021. A new model of connected renewable resource with power system and damping of low frequency oscillations by a new coordinated stabilizer based on modified multi-objective optimization algorithm. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 47, p.101356.

Fauzi, M.A., Setyono, P. and Pranolo, S.H., 2020, November. Environmental assessment of a small power plant based on palm kernel shell gasification. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2296, No. 1, p. 020038). AIP Publishing LLC.

Gatti, L., Ulrich, M. and Seele, P., 2019. Education for sustainable development through business simulation games: An exploratory study of sustainability gamification and its effects on students' learning outcomes. Journal of cleaner production, 207, pp.667-678.

Hadka, D., 2020. MOEA framework—a free and open source java framework for multiobjective optimization, 2012.

Han, X.R., Guo, X.T., Xu, M.J., Pang, H. and Ma, Y.W., 2020. Clean utilization of palm kernel shell: sustainable and naturally heteroatom-doped porous activated carbon for lithium–sulfur batteries. Rare Metals, 39(9), pp.1099-1106.

Hadiguna RA , 2016 Manajemen Rantai Pasok Agroindustri, Andalas University Press

Lim, C.I. and Biswas, W.K., 2018. Development of triple bottom line indicators for sustainability assessment framework of Malaysian palm oil industry. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 20(3), pp.539-560.

Nayeri, S., Torabi, S.A., Tavakoli, M. and Sazvar, Z., 2021. A multi-objective fuzzy robust stochastic model for designing a sustainable-resilient-responsive supply chain network. Journal of Cleaner Production, p.127691.

Rezk, H., Nassef, A.M., Inayat, A., Sayed, E.T., Shahbaz, M. and Olabi, A.G., 2019. Improving the environmental impact of palm kernel shell through maximizing its production of hydrogen and syngas using advanced artificial intelligence. Science of the Total Environment, 658, pp.1150-1160.

Schleifer, P. and Sun, Y., 2018. Emerging markets and private governance: the political economy of sustainable palm oil in China and India. Review of International Political Economy, 25(2), pp.190-214.

Shirazi, A., Taylor, R.A., Morrison, G.L. and White, S.D., 2017. A comprehensive, multi-objective optimization of solar-powered absorption chiller systems for air-conditioning applications. Energy Conversion and Management, 132, pp.281-306.

Taha, H.A., 2017. Operations research an introduction. © Pearson Education Limited 2017.







How to Cite

A Modelling of Multi-Objective Sustainability Palm Kernel Supply Chain Based on Hybrid NSGA-II and Reinforcement Learning . (2022). International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology (ijerat) (E-ISSN 2454-6135) DOI: 10.31695 IJERAT, 8(7), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.31695/IJERAT.2022.8.7.4